Introduction to Operating System (OS):
Operating System – Definition:
- An operating system is a software which controls the execution of applications and acts as an interface between the user of a computer and the computer hardware.
- An operating system is mainly concerned with the allocation of resources and services, such as processors, memory devices, and information. The operating system includes programs to manage these resources, such as a traffic controller, I/O programs, memory management module, scheduler and a file system.
Following are the functions of an operating system
- Process management:- Process management helps an OS to create and delete processes. It also provides mechanisms for synchronization and communication among the processes. Process management is one of the important functions of the operating system.
- Memory management:- Memory management is the allocation and de-allocation of memory space to programs in need of these resources.
- File management:- It manages all the file-related activities such as organization storage, sharing, naming, and protection of files. It is one of the important functions of OS.
- Device Management: Device management is useful in keeping tracks of all devices. This module is also responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. It also performs the task of allocation and de-allocation of the devices.
- I/O System Management: One of the main objects of an OS is to hide the peculiarities of the hardware devices from the user.
- Secondary-Storage Management: A System has several levels of storage which includes primary storage, secondary storage, and cache storage. Instructions and data are stored in primary storage or cache so that a running program can reference it.
- Security:- Security module protects the data and information of a computer system against the malware and authorized access.
- Command interpretation: This module is interpreting commands given by the user and acting system resources to process that commands.
- Networking: A distributed system is a group of processors that do not share a memory, hardware devices, or a clock. These processors communicate with one another through the network
- Job accounting: Keeping track of time & resource used by various jobs and users.
- Communication management: Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, and another software resource of the various users of the computer systems.
Types of OS:
- Batch OS
- Multitasking/Time-Sharing OS
- Multiprocessing OS
- Real-Time OS
- Distributed OS
- Network OS
- Mobile OS
History of Operating System:
These operating systems were first used in between 1945-1955 which were implemented in vacuum tubes and the type of OS device used is Plug Board.
These operating systems were used in between 1955-1965 which were implemented in transistors and the type of OS device is Batch system.
These operating systems were used in between 1965-1980 which were implemented in Integrated Circuits (IC) and the type of OS device is Multiprogramming.
These are being used since 1980 to till date implemented in Large scale integration and the type of OS device is PC(Personal Computer).
This history of the operating systems has shown how the OS has evolved.
Windows -- Most commonly used OS in PC’s ( Personal Computer).
Linux -- Used in servers, work stations and also for personal usage.
macOS(Macintosh) -- Only used in Apple’s PC’s.
Android -- Most popular OS for mobile phones, developed by Google.
IOS -- iPhone OS only used in Apple’s iPhones.
References: Operating Systems Concepts
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is an operating system and give examples?
An Operating system (OS) is a software which behaves as an interface between the user of the computer and the hardware of the computer. A computer must have at least one Operating System (OS) to run the applications.
What is OS and its functions?
Process management:- Process management helps an OS to create and delete processes. It also provides mechanisms for synchronization and communication among the processes. Process management is one of the important functions of operating system.
Memory management:- Memory management is allocation and de-allocation of memory space to programs in need of this resources.
File management:- It manages all the file-related activities such as organization storage, sharing, naming, and protection of files. It is one of the important functions of OS.
Who invented operating system?
The first operating system sold along with a computer was invented by IBM in 1964 to operate its mainframe computer.