Operating System Components

Components of an operating system

An Operating System is complex which is divided into various components and executed on system calls. Each of these components of an OS performs various tasks based on their work. These components can also be called as functions of an Operating system.

Most of the Operating Systems that we use in our daily life share some of the common components like File, Process, Memory, I/O device management.

components of operating system

Various components (or) functions of an operating system :

  • File Management
  • Process Management
  • I/O Device Management
  • Network Management
  • Main Memory management
  • Secondary-Storage Management
  • Security

File Management

File management can be defined as a process of managing the files on a computer system. The file management in an operating system includes operations like creating a file, deleting a file and modifying the information in a file.

File management is one of the most important functions of an operating system. An OS supports all types of files with different extensions.

File management in operating system

Functions of file management:

Following are the functions of file management in an OS.

  • Creation and deletion of files in a computer system.
  • File sharing among various users.
  • Manipulating the files and directories.
  • Quick access to files on a system.
  • File backup
  • File mapping on storage devices.

Process Management

Process management in an operating system involves different tasks like scheduling a process, creating a process, terminating a process and managing a deadlock. An operating system manages all the processes running in a computer system. An OS also synchronizes different processes in a system. During process execution, many hardware resources of a computer system are utilized.

A process needs various resources for execution called process components. The state of the process at a particular instant of time is called process state. A process consists of a set of instructions that are to be executed called process code.

Process management

Functions of process management:

Following are the functions of process management in an OS.

  • Process synchronization
  • Process communication
  • Creation and Deletion of process

Device Management

Device management is also one of the most important functions of an operating system. Device management in an OS is responsible for managing all the hardware resources of a computer. Which includes managing the devices like input devices, output devices and also storage devices of a system. The OS manages the devices with the help of device drivers and device controllers. Every hardware device of the computer is equipped with the help of device controllers. Some of the device controllers present in a system are memory controller, tape-drive controller, disk controller, printer controller, etc… A device controller is a hardware component containing a buffer register to store data temporarily.

This stores the status of a device either it is free or busy. If a device requested is free then the operating system assigns it to the requested process.

Functions of I/O management:

  • Provides drivers for hardware devices.
  • Offers buffer caching system.
  • Provides device driver code.

Network Management

Network management is a process of managing and administrating the computer network. That includes the provision of networks, performance management, fault analysis etc…

In a distributed system the computers never share their memory. So, the computer systems have their own memory and communicate with each other using networks. All the computer systems in a network are connected through a communication network. With the help of network management, the network can be fully or partially connected, which helps users to design routing and connection strategies that overcome connection and security issues.

Functions of Network management:

Following are the functions of network management in an OS

  • A distributed system helps you in various computing resources in size and function. Which involves the microprocessors, minicomputers, and also many general-purpose computer systems.
  • A distributed system offers its user to access the various resources that a network shares.
  • It helps in accessing the shared resources that help computation to speed-up or offers data availability and reliability.

Memory Management

Memory management is one of the most important components of an operating system which is responsible for managing the main memory of a computer system.

Memory management in an OS maintains the status of every memory location regardless of either it is allocated to a process or it is set free. It also checks the amount of memory allocated to a process and also updates when it is freed to allocate it to the new processes.

Functions of Memory management:

Following are the functions of memory management in an OS

  • Keep track of primary memory.
  • In the multiprogramming systems, OS takes the decision about which process will get Memory and how much memory it gets.
  • It allocates the memory to a process whenever required.
  • It even de-allocates the memory when a process no longer needs it or the process has been terminated.

Secondary Storage Management

Secondary storage management is managing the data and programs on secondary storage devices in a computer system.

The most important task of a computer is to execute the jobs, which are stored in the primary storage device. But these cannot store large data so secondary devices are used as backup devices to store the data for main memory. Most common secondary storage devices are hard disks/SSD(Solid State Drive). This type of storage management also works on USBs, CDs and other storage devices.   

Functions of Secondary Storage Management:

Following are the functions of secondary storage management in an OS

  • Storage allocation.
  • Free space management.
  • Disk scheduling.

Security

Security is also one of the most important components of an operating system Because various processes in an OS need to be secured from other processes. So, for any process to access another these should be proper authorization from the operating system.

For example, memory addressing hardware helps us to confirm that a process can be executed within its own address space. The time ensures that no process has control of the CPU without renouncing it.

None of the processes is allowed to do their own I/O operations, in order to protect, which helps you to keep the integrity of the various peripheral devices.

References: Operating System Concepts

Also Read: Operating System System Calls

Types of Operating Systems

FAQ?

What are various components of OS?

File Management
Process Management
I/O Device Management
Network Management
Main Memory management
Secondary-Storage Management
Security

What is device management in OS?

Device management is also one of the most important components of an operating system. Device management in an OS is responsible for managing all the hardware resources of a computer.

What is network management in operating system?

Network management is a process of managing and administrating the computer network. That includes the provision of networks, performance management, fault analysis etc…

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