Quantum Computing is using and exploiting the amazing laws of quantum mechanics to process information.
A normal computer uses long strings of bits that encode the information in either 0 or 1. A quantum computer consists of quantum bits (or) Qubits. A qubit is a quantum system that encodes the 0 and 1 into two distinguishable quantum state. These qubits behave depending on the quantum properties. We can show them by the phenomenon of superposition and entanglement.
Superposition is the ability of a quantum system to be in multiple states at the same time.
Entanglement is an extremely strong co-relation that exists between quantum particles.
Inside a Quantum computer:
In order to work with quantumbits(qubits) for extended periods of time, they must be kept very cold. Any heat in the system can cause errors, which is why quantum computers are designed to create and operate at very low temperatures i.e. near to absolute zero.
Let’s have a look at how a quantum computer’s dilution refrigerator is made from more than 2,000 components, exploits the mixing properties of two helium isotopes to create such an environment for the qubits inside.
1. Qubit Signal Amplifier
One of two amplifying stages is cooled to a temperature of 4 Kelvin.
2. Input Microwave Lines
Attenuation is applied at each stage in the refrigerator in order to protect qubits from thermal noise during the process of sending control and readout signals to the processor.
3. Superconducting Coaxial Lines
In order to minimize energy loss, the coaxial lines that direct signals between the first and second amplifying stages are made out of superconductors.
4. Cryogenic Isolators
Cryogenic isolators enable qubits signals to go forward while preventing noise from compromising qubit quality.
5. Quantum Amplifiers
Quantum amplifiers inside of a magnetic shield capture and amplify processor readout signals while minimizing noise.
6. Cryoperm Shield
The quantum processor sits inside a shield that protects it from electromagnetic radiation in order to preserve its quality.
7. Mixing Chamber
The mixing chamber at the lowest part of the refrigerator provides the necessary cooling power to bring the processor and associated components down to a temperature of 15 mK — colder than outer space.
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